Some other triggers such as tiredness, less sleep, overexertion, low sugar levels, jet lag, dehydration.

Risk factorsdepression, irritable bowel disorder, sleep disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety.

Signs and symptom s –

Usually, the headache is one-sided.

Headache worsens during physical activity or straining.

The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks vary.

Before the headache, about 50% of people experience physical and sensory symptoms, such as aura.

The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sound, & smell, fatigue, and irritability.

Mild to severe throbbing or pulsating type of headache with nausea and vomiting.

There is marked sensitivity to light and sound where the patient gets relief while lying in a quiet and darkroom

In adults, the pain usually lasts up to 3 days & in children usually less than 1 hour.  

Other associated symptoms include blurred vision, nasal blockage, loose motions, frequent urination, pallor, or sweating. Swelling and tenderness of the scalp with the stiffness of the neck also may be present.

Types –

Migraine with aura i.e. classic migraine. About 30% of people suffer from this type. It is a subjective sensation experienced at the onset of a neurological condition. It’s a warning sign before the attack. Disturbance of the senses occurs in the early stages of the episode.

An aura may consist of –

  • confused thoughts
  • seeing lights, objects before the eyes
  • blurred vision
  • pricking sensation in an arm or leg
  • difficulty in speaking
  • weakness in the shoulders, neck, or limbs

Migraine without aura i.e. common migraine. There is no aura before the episode.

Chronic migrainea headache for at least 15 days a month, with 8 days of headaches with migraine features, for more than 3 months. Bilateral pain is common in those who have migraines without an aura.

Menstrual migraine it may appear 2 days before the menses and may last for few more days after menses. This type usually follows the menstrual cycle.

Abdominal migraine This type is accompanied by disturbances of the abdomen with nausea or vomiting.

Vestibular migrainemigraine episode with severe vertigo.

Hemiplegic migrainein this type, there is temporary weakness on one side of the body.

  • Use cold packs or masks
  • Stay in a quiet, darkened room
  • Take a good sleep
  • Avoid food and beverages – such as meat, bacon, sausage, alcohol, chocolate, food containing monosodium glutamate (MSG), processed foods, pickles, dairy products like buttermilk, sour cream, etc.
  • Ginger – is known as a home remedy for nausea caused by many conditions, including migraines. Ginger powder decreases migraine severity and its duration as well.
  • Acupressure – is found to be effective in pain relief from chronic headaches and other conditions. 
  • Yoga – regular yoga helps to relieve the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraines. Experts believe yoga is a primary treatment for migraines to get rid of it.
  • Magnesium – it is linked to headaches and migraines. Magnesium supplementation often helps to prevent migraines. You can also get magnesium in foods such as almonds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, cashew nuts, oatmeal, milk, eggs, etc. 
  • Physical therapy – neck exercises, massages also help in migraines.
  • Lavender oil – inhaling lavender oil or applying it over temples gives some relief in migraine pain.
How to prevent migraine

It’s not always possible to prevent the episodes. But you can reduce the frequency and severity of them.

Identify the triggers and avoid them. A trigger may be stress, overexertion, certain foods, medicines, exposure to bright lights, low sugar level, alcohol, less sleep. Monitor and observe yourself to out such triggers.

Learn stress reduction techniques such as yoga, cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques.

Regular physical exercise may decrease the frequency.


The diagnosis of migraine is based on signs, symptoms, and history. Imaging tests are not helpful but may be used to find other causes of headaches like tumors.